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The Merovingian dynasty ruled present-day France and part of Germany between the 5th and 8th centuries. Its first king was Clovis I, who conquered much of the Gallic territory between 48636 and 507 (the year in which he established Paris as the capital). Clovis converted to Orthodox Christianity (in opposition to the Arian heresy), being baptized in Reims around 496,37, thus obtaining the support of the Gallo-Roman elites and establishing an important historical link between the French crown and the Catholic Church. 36

In 732, Charles Martel defeated the Arab forces of the Umayyad Caliphate at the Battle of Poitiers, also called the Battle of Tours, thus halting the Muslim advance towards Rome through western Europe. After the rise of Charlemagne in 768, the kingdom expanded to encompass much of Germany and Italy. At Christmas 800, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III, establishing the so-called Carolingian Empire.

France’s existence as a separate entity began with the Treaty of Verdun (843), which divided Charlemagne’s Carolingian Empire into Eastern France, Western France, and Middle France. Western France comprised roughly the area occupied by modern France, of which it was the forerunner. Their kings continued to use the title of King of the Franks until the government of Philip Augustus, who first used the title of King of France in a diplomatic document dated 1204.

Between the years 1337 and 1453 (116 years), the Kingdom of France was the scene of the Hundred Years’ War, a war that it waged against the Kingdom of England, which resulted in the English withdrawal from Gallic soil.

The history of France in the seventeenth century was marked by the height of royal power, which became absolute. After the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), the kingdom of France became a power whose radiance extended to much of Europe.

It is also a period of great change from a cultural point of view. French culture radiates Europe, in all domains, supported by the creation of Academies: literature, the arts, the sciences. French is confirmed as the language of great writers (Molière, Corneille). Painting, sculpture, architecture and music also flourish. French scientists have a very important position in Europe (astronomy, mathematics, physics, optics), with Fermat, Pascal, Descartes.